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The Science

Participate in a clinical trial

Would you like to participate in a clinical trial using Flow?

If you are based in England, Wales or Texas, and have moderate to severe depression, you might be eligible to join and contribute to research focused on improving the future of depression treatment.

To find out if you are eligible

Participate in a clinical trial - US

Would you like to participate in a clinical trial using Flow?

If you are based in England, Wales or Texas, and have moderate to severe depression, you might be eligible to join and contribute to research focused on improving the future of depression treatment.

To find out if you are eligible

Clinical Research: Brain Stimulation

The Flow brain stimulation treatment is based on decades of clinical research with the most recent meta-analyses showing that tDCS has similar efficacy to other treatments but with fewer side effects

Across 20+ randomized controlled trials tDCS has been shown to be superior to placebo/sham and no serious adverse events have been observed. Hence, tDCS provides an alternative to medication that is effective, safe and accessible.

tDCS for depression is definitely effective (level A evidence)
An analysis of 23 clinical trials with 1092 patients, showing that tDCS is superior to placebo/sham
No serious adverse events were found across 33,200 tDCS sessions with 1000 users
Study including 245 patients, comparing tDCS with a common antidepressant
tDCS was found to be efficacious and comparable to TMS
Combining tDCS and a common antidepressant increases the efficacy of each treatment
30-minute tDCS sessions lead to better outcomes than 20-minutes sessions
Side effects from tDCS are mild, transient and well-tolerated
tDCS is efficient in cases where antidepressants don’t work
Low-energy brain stimulation is safe to use
tDCS is safe and effective for treating depression
tDCS is a safe long-term follow-up treatment

Clinical Research: Behaviour Therapy

The Flow therapy app is based on a hundred years of psychological research, showing that exercise, sleep, diet and meditating all have an impact on reducing depressive symptoms when incorporated into a regular routine.


Research shows that regular exercise is as effective as antidepressant medication. It increases positive mood and stimulates growth of new brain cells.

Daily meditation enhances your mood, attention, memory and emotional regulation while reducing depressive symptoms.

The latest research gives you the recipe for an antidepressant diet. Changing your eating habits can prevent the development of depression and reduce depressive symptoms.

Did you know that sleep can act as overnight therapy? According to research, creating healthy sleeping habits can impact depressive symptoms.


Murri et al., 2019: Physical Exercise in Major Depression: Reducing the Mortality Gap While Improving Clinical Outcomes. 

Hallgren et al., 2020: Associations of exercise frequency and cardiorespiratory fitness with symptoms of depression and anxiety – a cross-sectional study of 36,595 adults.

Morres et al., 2018: Aerobic exercise for adult patients with major depressive disorder in mental health services: A systematic review and meta‐analysis.

Lederman et al., 2019: Does exercise improve sleep quality in individuals with mental illness? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Basso & Suzuki, 2017: The Effects of Acute Exercise on Mood, Cognition, Neurophysiology, and Neurochemical Pathways: A Review.

Schuch et al., 2016: Exercise as a treatment for depression: A meta-analysis adjusting for publication bias


Basso et al., 2018: Brief, daily meditation enhances attention, memory, mood, and emotional regulation in non-experienced meditators.

Li et al., 2020: Effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, depression, stress, and mindfulness in nursing students: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Reangsing et al., 2020: Effects of mindfulness meditation interventions on depression in older adults: A meta-analysis.

Carpena et al., 2019: The effect of a six-week focused meditation training on depression and anxiety symptoms in Brazilian university students with 6 and 12 months of follow-up.

Fish & Saul, 2019: The Gamification of Meditation: A Randomized-Controlled Study of a Prescribed Mobile Mindfulness Meditation Application in Reducing College Students’ Depression.

Kuyken et al., 2016: Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in Prevention of Depressive Relapse

Do-Hyung Kang et al., 2013: The effect of meditation on brain structure: cortical thickness mapping and diffusion tensor imaging

Farb et al., 2010: Minding one’s emotions: Mindfulness training alters the neural expression of sadness


Bastiaanssen et al., 2020: Gutted! Unraveling the Role of the Microbiome in Major Depressive Disorder


Lassale et al., 2019: Healthy dietary indices and risk of depressive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies


Dinan et al., 2018: Feeding melancholic microbes: MyNewGut recommendations on diet and mood.


Godos et al., 2019: Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet is Associated with Better Sleep Quality in Italian Adults


Jacka et al., 2017: A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the ‘SMILES’ trial)

Vermeulen et al., 2017: A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study


Riemann et al., 2020: Sleep, insomnia and depression 


Üzer & Yücens, 2020: The effect of circadian preferences on insomnia severity and depressive symptoms via sleep hygiene in older adults with depression and healthy controls.


Lane et al., 2019: Biological and clinical insights from genetics of insomnia symptoms.


Tolêdo et al., 2020: Sleep disturbance and depression in adolescence: an integrative review of literature


van der Helm & Walker, 2009: Overnight Therapy? The Role of Sleep in Emotional Brain Processing.


Nishida et al., 2009: REM Sleep, Prefrontal Theta, and the Consolidation of Human Emotional Memory.

Tsuno et al., 2005: Sleep and Depression.

tDCS and depression

tDCS has shown across years of research to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms. With world-leading tDCS researcher Andre Brunoni highlighting that tDCS works best through 30-minute sessions, 2-5 times per week. In terms of adverse experiences, recent meta-analyses indicate that this type of treatment has low risk, with over 33200 stimulation sessions showing no serious effects.

Flow and depression

The Flow treatment has proven effective, both by research trials conducted by third parties and by internal analysis conducted by Flow Neuroscience.
The Flow treatment has been shown in multiple clinical trials to have a positive impact on depression and to reduce depressive symptoms within 3 weeks.
Internal analysis shows 81% of Flow users experiencing an increase in focus, mood and optimism with 30% overcoming depression completely.

Clinical Research Pillars

As part of our commitment to the field of brain stimulation and mental health, we are focused on creating accessible solutions globally that have an impact.

“The Future of neuromodulation is in our hands”

We’re thrilled to announce our acquisition of Halo Neuroscience’s technology

What does this mean?
As Halo was one of the leaders in neuromodulation for performance enhancement, we are excited to use their assets to propel our mission to improve mental health globally. We will bring together the expertise of their research and device application to create new technology for treating mental health disorders, starting with enhancing the Flow depression treatment.
The future?

Innovating neuromodulation for mental health disorders, our co-founders Daniel and Erik explain: 

“Our aim is to improve the lives of people who struggle with their mental health. Halo’s advanced technology and academically backed research will help us to further develop treatments for a variety of mental health issues using the power of a remote, accessible brain stimulation”

Brett Wingeier, CEO and co-founder of Halo

will support progress as an advisor to Flow: 

“Flow is the best possible successor and a great home for everything we built at Halo with the help of our team, our customers, and our collaborators.  We’re looking forward to seeing Flow’s research and technology advance the state of the art in neuromodulation and make an enormous impact on mental health worldwide with efficient, patient-specific, precision treatment.”

Interested in research collaboration? Email us on

Research Community

We are committed to our research contribution with regular ongoing clinical trials, see if you’re eligible. In proud partnership with:

Get Flow

Rent or Own. Choose your Flow with flexibility.

The science behind Flow

Flow and the brain

  • Depression is associated with lowered activity in a brain area called the DLPFC (Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex). It’s located in the frontal lobe.
  • The Flow headset delivers gentle electrical signals to the DLPFC to help activate the brain cells. As a result, depressive symptoms decrease or disappear.
  • The technology used in the Flow headset is called transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).
  • World-leading tDCS researcher and assoc. Professor of Psychiatry, Andre Brunoni, has found that tDCS works best through 30-minute sessions, 2-5 times per week.

Studies on tDCS and depression

The technique used in the Flow headset is solely based on results from RCT* studies, conducted without funding from Flow Neuroscience. One such study included 245 participants with depression. It was conducted in 2017 and showed that 41% of depressed people noticed that at least half of their symptoms disappeared within 6 weeks of using brain stimulation. Only 22% of people in the placebo group experienced similar results.

To learn more about the history of tDCS and how it compares to other brain stimulation techniques, click here.

*An RCT (Randomised Controlled Trial) study is a type of research method used to make sure that results are as reliable as possible

Brunoni, A. R., Moffa, A. H., Sampaio-Junior, B., Borrione, L., Moreno, M. L., Fernandes, R. A., Benseñor, I. M. (2017). Trial of Electrical Direct-Current Therapy versus Antidepressant for Depression. New England Journal of Medicine (26), 2523–2533.


Brunoni, A. R., Moffa, A. H., Fregni, F., Palm, U., Padberg, F., Blumberger, D. M., … Loo, C. K. (2016). Transcranial direct current stimulation for acute major depressive episodes: meta-analysis of individual patient data. The British Journal of Psychiatry : The Journal of Mental Science, 208(6), 522–531.


Mutz et al (2019). Comparative efficacy and acceptability of non-surgical brain stimulation for the acute treatment of major depressive episodes in adults: systematic review and network meta-analysis: BMJ 2019; 364 doi: 

Studies on tDCS and safety

Among many others, a meta-analysis* conducted in 2016 showed that the technique used in the Flow headset is safe and has never been associated with brain damage. The analysis included 1000 research participants and over 33,200 stimulation sessions!

*A meta-analysis is a research method that combines results from multiple studies. This means that the results from a meta-analysis are particularly reliable.

Bikson et al., Safety of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence Based Update 2016. Brain Stimulation, 9(2016), 641–661.

Aparício et al., A Systematic Review on the Acceptability and Tolerability of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Treatment in Neuropsychiatry Trials. Brain Stimulation, 9(5), 671–681.

Nikolin et al., Safety of repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation: A systematic review. Brain Stimulation 11 (2018) 278-288.

The therapy app

To maximize your chances of recovering from depression, the brain stimulation is combined with behaviour therapy delivered through the app Flow – Depression. The therapy focuses on lifestyle changes that significantly reduce symptoms of depression. Naturally, the facts and techniques presented in the treatment programme are based on RCT (Randomised Controlled Trial) studies and developed by clinical psychologists.


Did you know that regular exercise is just as effective as medication for treating depression? A 30-minute walk increases positive mood immediately. Long-term, exercise stimulates growth of new brain cells.


90% of depressed people struggle with sleep, but there are many things you can do at home to create healthy sleeping habits. According to recent sleep research, sleep can act as a form of overnight therapy.


The SMILES study, conducted in 2017, showed that 30% of depressed participants recovered just by changing their eating habits. The app will tell you all about the Antidepressant diet.


Mindfulness meditation can prevent people from falling into depression. Among other things, regular meditation practice changes the structure of the brain and your way of processing emotions.

Delayed Delivery

Flow has been helping so many people with their depression, at a rate we are trying to keep up with. Therefore, it might take us longer than usual to get your Flow to you.
Expect delays of up to 1-2 weeks
(Please note, your 30-day free trial won’t start until your device has been shipped)
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Be sure to join the Flow Facebook community to hear from others, receive support, and connect with other users of Flow. We would be honored to have you.

Free trial

Try Flow for free, payment will be taken 30 days after the shipment date.

Buy device

You can buy your Flow device after 6 months of your subscription. When you are eligible, you can email us at to purchase the headset for half of the full price.  

End subscription

You can end your subscription at any time and return your headset by following the return request here. There will be no refunds on subscriptions already paid. Once the request is submitted no further subscription payments will be taken.